What Living Wills Won’t Do

Weekly Standard, Volume 010, Issue 29 | Published on

By Eric Cohen

Print Friendly


IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE Terri Schiavo case, it seems clear that most Americans are uncomfortable at the prospect of politicians’ intervening in family decisions about life and death. This is not only understandable, but usually wise. Americans understand that eventually they will have to make medical decisions for loved ones, and that such decisions are wrenching. Most people have little faith that the state–or the courts–can make better judgments than they can. And they are usually right.

But it is precisely the complexity of these life-and-death decisions that sometimes makes state involvement inevitable. The state was involved in the Schiavo case long before Congress intervened, from the time Terri’s parents went to court in Florida to challenge her husband’s fitness as a guardian back in 1993. State judiciaries must decide when family members clash, or when doctors and families disagree, or when surrogates wish to override a loved one’s living will. And state legislatures have a responsibility to set the parameters for judicial decisions in particular cases. They must decide the admissibility of casual conversations in determining a person’s prior wishes, or the appropriate weight to give a person’s desires (such as requests for assisted suicide) even when they are clearly expressed.

For decades, we have deluded ourselves into believing that living wills would solve our caregiving problems; that healthy individuals could provide advance instructions for what to do if they became incompetent; that such a system would ensure that no one is mistreated and that everyone defines the meaning of life for himself until the very end. But it is now clear that living wills have failed, both practically and morally.

In the March-April 2004 issue of the Hastings Center Report, Angela Fagerlin and Carl E. Schneider survey the social science data, and their conclusions are damning: Most people do not have living wills, despite a very active campaign to promote them; those who do usually provide vague and conflicting instructions; people’s opinions often change from experience to experience; and people’s instructions are easily influenced by how a given scenario is described. These are not problems that any reform can fix. A person simply can’t grasp in the present every medical and moral nuance of his own future case.

The dream of perfect autonomy–everyone speaking for himself, never deciding for another–should fade each time we change a parent’s diaper, or visit a grandparent who does not recognize us, or sell an uncle’s property to pay for the nursing home. After all, the only fully autonomous death–with every detail governed by individual will–is suicide. And suicide is hardly a basis for dealing more responsibly with the burdens of caregiving.

As the baby boomers age, we are entering a period when long-term dementia will often be the prelude to death, and when caregivers will regularly have to make decisions about how or whether to treat intervening illnesses like infections, heart trouble, or cancer. When should we accept that death has arrived, and when does stopping treatment entail a judgment that Alzheimer’s patients are “better off dead”? What do we owe those who are cognitively disabled and totally dependent?

On these hard questions, the most vocal critics of Congress and “the religious right” in the Schiavo case have revealed the shallowness of their own thinking. Defending the “right to privacy” ignores the moral challenge of deciding how we should act in private, as both patients and caregivers. Asserting that “the state should stay out” of these decisions ignores the fact that some hard cases will always end up in court; that legislatures have a civic responsibility to pass the laws that courts apply; and that a decent society should set some minimum moral boundaries, such as laws against euthanasia and assisted suicide. And claiming that we should “defer to medical experts” ignores the potential conflict between the ideology of living wills and the ethic of medicine, since some people will leave instructions that no principled physician could execute.

In the end, the retreat to moral libertarianism and liberal proceduralism is inadequate. We need, instead, a moral philosophy, a political philosophy, and a medical philosophy that clarify our roles as caregivers, citizens, and doctors attending to those who cannot speak for themselves.

ANY MORAL PHILOSOPHY of care should begin with the premise that disability–even profound disability–is not grounds for seeking someone’s death. But seeking death and accepting death when it arrives are very different matters. And while we should not seek death, neither should we see extending life at all costs as the supreme goal of care.

Imagine, for example, that a person with advanced Alzheimer’s is diagnosed with cancer, and there is a burdensome treatment (like radiation) that might extend the person’s remaining life from three months to six months. In this case, family members seem morally justified in rejecting the treatment, even knowing that an earlier death is the likely result. But they don’t reject treatment so that the patient will die; they reject it so that the patient will not suffer excessively as death arrives. They choose minimum discomfort, not death. By contrast, if the same Alzheimer’s patient gets an infection that is easily treated by antibiotics, it is hard to see any moral ground for withholding treatment. Holding back ordinary care is not the same as euthanasia, but it is still a choice that hastens death as its aim.

In reality, many dementia cases involve multiple illnesses, with uncertain prognoses, and a menu of treatment options. Often, there are various morally justifiable choices. Personal values do matter. But what is always needed is a moral framework that governs such private decisions, based on the belief that every life is equal, and no life should be treated as a burden to be relinquished, including one’s own.

Given the infinite complexity of these clinical situations, the scope of the law should always be limited. What is legally permissible is not always morally right, but what is morally wrong should not always be outlawed. Nevertheless, it is foolish to ignore the extent to which the current legal framework shapes how people make private decisions, or to ignore the proper role of the state in setting certain minimum boundaries. Legally, no competent person should ever be forced to accept medical treatment in the present that he does not want. Legally, no one should have the right to commit suicide or procure assistance in doing so, and no one should be killed or forced to die against his will or that of his guardians. And legally, guardians should not be forced to implement living wills that aim at death as their goal.

As for the courts that are called upon to settle certain cases, they will need some political guidance or governing principles to do so. For example, what if a tenured professor of bioethics, unable to bear the loss of his cognitive powers, leaves written instructions not to treat any infections if he ever suffers dementia? Decades later, now suffering from Alzheimer’s, the former professor is mentally impaired but seemingly happy. He can’t recognize his children, but he seems to enjoy the sunset. He’s been physically healthy for years, but then gets a urinary tract infection. All his family members believe he should be treated.

Should the state intervene to prohibit antibiotics–to protect the incompetent person’s “right to die”? Or should the state leave the family members alone, so they can do what they believe is in the best interests of the person the professor now is? If Andrew Sullivan and other critics are worried about “theocons” using the power of the state to undermine the right to self-determination, are they willing to use the power of the state to impose death when families choose life? Is this what their idea of “autonomy” really requires?

And this leads us, finally, to the ethics of medicine. We have already gone very far in turning medicine into a service industry and doctors into technicians who simply use their skills to do our bidding. The physicians who perform abortions when the life and health of the mother are not in danger, or the cosmetic surgeons who give breast implants to healthy women, or the doctors who prescribe growth hormone for kids of average height are not really practicing medicine; they are serving desires. Most doctors take their medical oath seriously, struggling daily and often heroically to provide for those entrusted to their care. But some have succumbed to various forms of utilitarianism, or simply believe that people with cognitive disabilities are already humanly dead. In cases like Terri Schiavo’s–a disabled woman, not dead or dying, whose feeding was keeping her alive without imposing additional burdens–it is hard to see how any doctor could ethically remove a feeding tube. And if we are to respect medicine as a moral profession, no court should compel doctors of conscience to do so.

As America ages and dementia becomes a common phenomenon, the dilemmas that the Schiavo case thrust onto the nightly news will only become more urgent and more profound. As a society, we will need to navigate between two dangers: The first is the euthanasia solution, and the prospect of treating the old and vulnerable as burdens to be ignored, abandoned, or put to sleep at our convenience. The second is that the costs of long-term care will suffocate every other civic and cultural good–like educating the young, promoting the arts and sciences, and preserving a strong defense.

We will face imperfect options, as societies always do. In navigating the dangers, we will need to rely on more than the gospel of autonomy, and we will need to confront the failure of living wills and the ideology they rest upon: that deciding for others is always to be avoided. In reality, deciding for others is what many of us will be required to do as parents age or spouses decline, and we will do well to accept this burden with moral sobriety rather than pretending it does not exist.

—Eric Cohen is editor of The New Atlantis and resident scholar at the Ethics and Public Policy Center.

Trackbacks

  1. view says:

    … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  2. this video says:

    … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  3. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  4. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  5. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  6. DUI says:

    … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 93090 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  7. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 35376 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  8. click here says:

    … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 40829 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  9. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  10. grappling says:

    … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More Infos here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  11. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  12. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 14186 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  13. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 61250 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  14. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More Infos here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  15. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 654 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  16. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More Infos here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  17. zomerdekbed says:

    … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More Infos here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  18. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 45278 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  19. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 6814 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  20. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  21. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 56565 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  22. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Find More Informations here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  23. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More Infos here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  24. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  25. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More Infos here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  26. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 2621 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  27. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 97072 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  28. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  29. dwutgg says:

    dwutgg…

    Agree with your post. Do you can keep update your post. I will back. thx!…

  30. Trackback says:

    Thank you…

    How do i put the blog comment approval on my myspace to approve blog comments before posting them?…

  31. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  32. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  33. Acme Auto Pawn Colorado Springs…

    Auto Equity Loans Los Angeles Ca…

  34. … [Trackback]…

    [...] There you will find 11489 more Infos: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  35. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  36. Trackback says:

    Great…

    In Blogger’s new Template Designer there is no template which contains fluid width in for the text body. Does anybody know how to change to fluid width in the new templates? Any suggestions are greatly appreciated…..

  37. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  38. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Find More Informations here: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  39. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Informations on that Topic: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  40. Find online colleges with us…

    More information about college hills honda right here…

  41. Trackback says:

    Funny…

    I need to earn a little extra money and I am a very opinionated person so I feel like writing blogs would be a good start to making some extra cash. I am a full time college student and I also have a $20 hour a week job but I am still having problems m…

  42. bcna certification…

    ccna certification practice exam…

  43. … [Trackback]…

    [...] Read More: eppc.org/publications/what-living-wills-wont-do/ [...]…

  44. itunes downloads greyed out…

    itunes download codes 2012…

  45. Facebook.com says:

    Good info…

    My home computer is hooked up to a router. I would like to have access to my home computer’s webcam through my work computer.. My home computer is hooked up through a DSL modem and is always on.. My work computer obviously has access to the Internet…..

  46. Trackback says:

    Thank you…

    Hi,. I have a question that I hope will have a simple answer. I have a wordpress blog and right now my side navigation menu is on the right side. I would like for the menu to be on the left side. Can someone please tell me how I would go about doing th…

  47. youtube.com says:

    payday loans napanee…

    payday loans guaranteed acceptance…

  48. Trackback says:

    Maybe……

    What was the URL format for Yahoo! 360 Blog posts back in the day?…

  49. Bad Credit Loans Not Payday…

    Bad Credit Loans Brantford…

  50. Bad Credit Loans Guaranteed Approval No Fee…

    Bad Credit Loans Bc…

  51. Bad Credit Loans In Ontario Online…

    Bad Credit Loans For Car In Toronto…

  52. Bad Credit Loans Gatineau…

    Bad Credit Loans Bank In Quebec…

  53. Trackback says:

    Maybe……

    I want to start a blog that everyone will read. After all, my opinions are extremely important. How do I get started?….

  54. Trackback says:

    Good info…

    I have one computer running Vista which is connected to the internet and I want to be able to get the internet on my second computer (that’s got XP) which is connected via a crossover cable. What do I need to set to be able to surf the net on my secon…

  55. Trackback says:

    I have some question…

    How to transfer files from my old computer to new computer?…

  56. Trackback says:

    Funny…

    what is some fun online sites to blog on and make fun posts besides facebook and tumblr?…

  57. Trackback says:

    Like it…

    Everyone says you can’t move a primary Tumlbr blog without deleting the account, but what about a secondary blog? I have two accounts, one that I use and one that I just started. I don’t use the primary blog on the old one, but I do use a secondary b…

  58. Trackback says:

    Great…

    What is a good free blogging website that I can respond to blogs and others will respond to me?…

  59. Souls in the Waves…

    Great Morning, I just stopped in to visit your web site and thought I’d say I experienced myself….

  60. Trackback says:

    Good info…

    How can I get the computer in one room to send stuff to the printer on my computer in another room. Internet?…

  61. I like your blog…

    I have a website that has been up and running for some time now, and for numerous reasons I want to replace it with a WordPress site… So, how do I start building the WordPress site – in a seperate folder from the “public_html” folder? Then when you…

  62. good blog! there are many things that…

    you have to do to make your blog a hit… actually its not that hard.1. site maps: to make your blog visible in search engines you have to make site maps from your blog and submit it to the search engines….

  63. blogs?this is what frustrates people the most…

    because when they start creating a blog with several posts published, they realize that traffic is almost non-existent.the reason is because no one knows about their blog and search engine traffic for the posts is zero.what a lot of people don’t…

  64. as giving you search engine benefits. so…

    your next step is to learn how you can write a good article that focuses on getting sales, subscribers and of course, traffic. when you’re doing article submissions for article marketing it’s always an option to outsource your writing to a…

  65. Thorn of Girl…

    Great facts is often located on this online website….

  66. Trackback says:

    Funny…

    I have been wanting to start a successful blog i want to start a blogg useing the best free blogg starting website…. pleez tell me which one is the best?????? \….

  67. Google says:

    Google…

    Very couple of web sites that occur to be in depth beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly properly really worth checking out….

  68. leaning heavily on the internet, bloggers can…

    have the great opportunity to earn money. there’s even no need to go to a conventional workplace and clock in for work. you can do your job from the comfort of your own home and at any time you choose. as…

  69. Trackback says:

    Great…

    How to use mozila firefox seting from an other windows?…

  70. not just provide a break in terms…

    of coursework. these courses allow students to relax and have fun, but they also provide mental stimulation and cross-curricular studies. a good writing class pulls elements from the study of literature, requiring students to read and analyze the creat…

  71. blogger is the health and fitness market….

    your goal as a blogger is to put yourself out there in a market with a lot of demand. your job is then to provide solutions to people’s problems by providing content and recommending products and services that can help them….

  72. all of them.hopefully, this will help people…

    focusing on link building using blog commenting as a backlinking strategy. blog commenting is so easy, you wouldn’t think it could get messed up, but it is constantly. so, without any more delay, here is our comment list of shame:hello, thanks…

  73. the best programs to use are the…

    ones that are with your hosting company, with a domain that you own.this means that you control the future of your blog, with no nasty surprises. you will not wake up one day after spending time, money and energy writing content…

  74. Anonymous says:

    will attract more attention, especially if they…

    are captivating.8. occasionally post good videos or audios as those have much greater impact.9. get on board with the new pages timeline as you can put links in the little boxed under the main header and those can connect to a…

  75. toys says:

    do. here are some article marketing tips…

    to help you find a quality writer and teach him or her to write in your style.what to look for in a good ghostwriter:your first order of business is to find a writer. there are tons of very talented writers who…

  76. your site.content is fast & furioushaving the…

    necessary passion for your ‘work’ will help keep both your interest and energy levels high for researching and then composing new updates for your site. your ability to do this consistently and in a frequent manner will help increase your profile…

  77. content writer, you receive this quality required…

    for a good blog.higher quantity availableblogs require a consistent and frequent level of updating but they also need more posts to get extra readership and visibility. the more posts that a blog has on a regular basis, the better it will…

  78. to 20 other video sites.i suggest you…

    find some tools on the internet that can shrink the size of your youtube videos, so that it doesn’t take all day to do. make sure in your video that you have your blog address at the bottom of the video….

  79. you use, the greater your audience is….

    good article offers specific information, using simple words and phrases. moreover, prefer using shorter sentences. this gives more room for each thought, making your articles more easy to read.a good article should contain educating information. it is…

  80. so to speak. good web writers should…

    be able to portray any message desired while effectively providing information that is pertinent to the products and services being offered. without these skills, the entire message of the content could be lost.when a business considers hiring web writ…

  81. of higher level because you already have…

    the skills that are mandatory for managers.in conclusion, an advance study is vitally important in order to get a higher recognition in the future. and even if you are already employed, getting an mba degree can help get you into the…

  82. to have lost our focus on content,…

    and instead, trust in vague systems of traffic generation, and care about ad placement as a means to increase conversion ratios. and yes, a well-placed ad is better than a horribly placed one, but the fact still remains, keyword research and…

  83. more security with freelance writers, you will…

    not have to pay the workers until you are completely satisfied with the work. the workers at these platforms should have reviews and ratings for earlier work they done to help you to choose the right candidate for your project. my…

  84. to their sites, so they apply seo…

    techniques when generating their content. if they decide to hire a writer, they will prefer someone who is already familiar with the requirements of working within an seo framework. so if you have knowledge of seo, your client will have more…

  85. they do they will leave because you…

    have nothing good to offer. sometimes it can be hard to write good content. one of the best ways to find good ideas to write about is to steal them. this may sound bad but it’s really not. find a few…

  86. get you there faster. the more you…

    write about a particular topic or niche, the more you’ll become known as an authority for that topic.online, people want a trusted resource they can rely on for valuable information that will answer their most pressing questions in an easy-to-understa…

  87. expand into other areas of writing later….

    in the early days, when you are trying to establish a reputation for being an excellent writer it’s best if you keep your writing to the areas where you can shine the most.next, you’ll need to think about whether you want…

  88. advertisements. blogs have evolved from online diaries…

    to profitable websites. of course, personal accounts of people and the word of mouth is a powerful strategy in advertising, thus many advertisers are also willing to pay blog owners for an ad space or for a promotional blog entry.with a…

  89. website says:

    i mean, think about it, if there…

    are 6 million people searching for a particular topic, wouldn’t you want to write about it. heck ya! go to the top ten blogs in your niche and find out what they are writing about. chances are that they will have…

  90. and there are several ways to be…

    productive by dividing and conquering. blogging is one of the ways that you can divide and conquer. as you become more stable with your business online, you may want to hire your own professional blogger. here are 5 reasons why you…

  91. on blog writing tips, before you start,…

    it will give you general ideas. create your own style. when you write regularly, you get to the point, where everything comes naturally.it is very important to update your content frequently. the most successful bloggers refresh their blogs several tim…

  92. no exception.wayne dyer said “it’s never crowded…

    along the extra mile” and it’s true. the dedicated ones who push further, work smarter and give 100% all the way to the finish line are the ones who achieve the extraordinary results.unwavering dedication and focus is essential.#5 – passionhow could…

  93. being short and direct to the point….

    think of it as the opposite of beating around the bush. brevity is the gold standard by which all the best writers are measured. if you are verbose (wordy), chances are you won’t be winning any writing contests any time soon…

  94. people choose your blog post over a…

    different blog site. if you really want to get the attention of your target audience, use words that target their emotions. push their buttons a little.4. interview an expert in your niche. one blog post writing tip that you could use…

  95. site’s name, select a more interesting name…

    that briefly describes what it is about.4. use pictures, too!majority of the population are lazy readers, like me. we prefer picture books. i automatically think that a book is boring if there’s no picture in it at all. make your site…

  96. thinking of using it to make blog…

    post to let people know things, however, there are some that only allow you to do that, which can be very limiting.however, if you have the right platform, you can also make a very good, and organized static site as well,…

  97. be short to be effective. we are…

    talking about a couple hundred words to complete a fresh post.they’re good filler content articles and a great way to remain in touch with the reader. as an effective blog writer you could make around $3 per article, but they just…

  98. the update they are currently viewing! linking…

    is a very effective strategy for developing loyalty amongst viewers by making your site easier to navigate! when writing content always make the effort to link to other relevant entries found on your blog!easy to read formatthe last thing to keep…

  99. methods. the individual in this case works…

    for the company while at the same time they are free to work as much or as little as they would want. it also allows them the flexibility to pursue other interests in their lives. network markets are also known as…

  100. three reasons why you want to own…

    your blog. those reasons far outweigh the learning curve of having one, which is very easy to learn once you talk with the right people. you own blog will give you so much more scope and business security.so these are my…

  101. one. also you’ll need to add all…

    the other work that has been published while you’ve been working on your topic.continuous smooth processyour research work should be done in one smooth continuous process. many students do experimental work and then stop and write, mainly when they ha…

  102. providing you with. generally fantastico script is…

    perfect for blog users as it provides bloggers with the type of platform they need to run their blog.lastly and most importantly, you need to make sure is that your company has a good reputation in order to get the best…

  103. that the very word “blog” was recognized…

    as “word of the year” in merriam-websters dictionary in the year 2004. the famous tv game show, jeopardy, has used it as one of their categories. many families in this current generation utilize blogs as a vehicle to communicate and teachers…

  104. think that coming up with a witty…

    title is a good idea, but people tend to decide within three seconds if they are going to continue reading or not. choose a title that will draw your reader in and make them want to read more. write quality content…

  105. saying why you should ignore all kinds…

    of blogging services and have bespoke software developed specifically for your needs.and all of these arguments are wrong; plain wrong.every blogging service that is available enables you to write and publish blog posts. each of the myriad of blogging …

  106. cool site says:

    up on a blog.so, lets recap. the…

    most popular form of blogging tends to be informative blogging done by consumers, and personal blogs. while corporate blogs do fairly well, they aren’t always the favorite as customers want reviews or stories from people just like them. the average jo…

  107. help you boost your writing abilities. get…

    to know them very well and submit yourself to their training.write regularly to train your brain and your hands to write. the more you write the more you will exercise your brain to squeeze out more words from it for you…

  108. good place to advertise services, goods and…

    other things by writing quality reviews, airing ones point of view or sharing your knowledge with others. today almost all big websites have blogs which are located on the website or on a different domain. usually you need to update the…

  109. as we all know there is a…

    consequence to every action that you or your subject does. you can introduce fun ideas in your blog like how does peer pressure affect that way that you would normally make a rational decision.political correctnesspolitics are big business in today’s …

  110. track. however, you have to have the…

    best vocabulary and writing power to capture the audience and then you can start making money on your blog.this is the best way to make money while you are staying at your comfortable home. however, to start making money you have…

  111. of course, each blogger has their own…

    idea of success, but most set goals for high traffic and receiving more feedback on their content. if you’re determined that your blog can be successful, if you’re willing to spend the necessary time to create compelling content, and perhaps most…

  112. always a safe bet to stay positive…

    on your blog; however there is no denying that people love to read about something controversial. generally, you can just write about something that you don’t like, and people will show up and get on their respective soap boxes and tell…

  113. will respond; “the gulf of mexico” is…

    a ballad of the recent oil-spill disaster in the gulf of mexico; “little emperor” is a funny jab at george w.; “molly-o” is just weird, but in a good way; and “god is god” is steve earle at his poetic and…